Werner Heisenberg, in 1925, produced the first outline of what became known as quantum mechanics. This is essentially a study of the universe at the sub atomic level. It was quickly discovered that we cannot know the speed and location of a sub atomic particle at the same time. This became known as the Uncertainty Principle.
If the validation Fr George Lemaitre’s thesis for origin of the universe being the action of the Primeval Atom called a serious questioning / headache about all their theories among cosmological scientists, Heisenberg’s discovery of the Uncertainty Principle at the sub atomic level caused such a degree of doubt amongst scientists about all they believed they understood about the nature of our universe, that it’s often referred to as a nervous breakdown amongst the scientific community. None of the questions it posed have yet been resolved.
In the following, I detail two of the most well-known phenomena that have been the subject of experiments at the sub atomic level experiments.
A Description of -Double-slit experiment
Photons or particles of matter (like an electron) produce a wave pattern when two slits are used.
In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles. Moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena. The experiment was first performed with light by Thomas Young in 1801. In 1927, Davisson and Germer demonstrated that electrons show the same behaviour, which was later extended to atoms or molecules.
The double-slit experiment (and its variations) has become a classic thought experiment, for its clarity in expressing the central puzzles of quantum mechanics. Because it demonstrates the fundamental limitation of the ability of the observer to predict experimental results, Richard Feynman called it "a phenomenon which is impossible […] to explain in any classical way, and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics. In reality, it contains the only mystery [of quantum mechanics
This first example is the single particle double slot experiment conducted at the sub atomic level. This demonstrates that the laws of quantum physics are not deterministic, that is they do not follow the long accepted cause and effect rules.
* But that they are probably-mistic
* A quantum particle can exist in a great number of states. Only when observed will it fall into one position.
* What it seems to conclusively prove is that sub atomic particles re act differently when they are being observed by a human/camera/microscope that when not being observed.
* That is, that there are infinite possibilities in every situation and only when observed by a human does it become reality.
* Meaning our act of observation influences and therefore creates the reality of every moment, not some mechanistic cause and effect rule of nature. Many people feel/believe we are like an inanimate object reacting passively to actions/situations that come at us over which we have no influence. The results of this experiment absolutely contradict that interpretation of our reality.
Discoveries in Quantum Physics
The Verification of Quantum Entanglement and its implications for our interpretation of the reality of the world we live in, is one of the most perplexing discoveries of quantum physics.
It is difficult to summarise in simple terms this phenomena and its implications. Below is an attempt at simplifying and summarizing a technical background paper available on Wikipedia.
Do not get too bogged down in trying to follow the detail. I provide an explanation by way of a simple analogy in human terms at the end of this article.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance.
Such phenomena were the subject of a 1935 paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen, and several papers by Erwin Schrödinger shortly thereafter, describing what came to be known as the EPR paradox. Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realism view of causality (Einstein referring to it as "spooky action at a distance") and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete.
Later, however, the counterintuitive predictions of quantum mechanics were verified experimentally Quantum entanglement has been demonstrated experimentally with photons, neutrinos, electrons, molecules as large as buckyballs, and even small diamonds. The utilization of entanglement in communication and computation is a very active area of research.
Meaning of entanglement
An entangled system is defined to be one whose quantum state cannot be factored as a product of states of its local constituents; that is to say, they are not individual particles but are an inseparable whole. In entanglement, one constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other(s). Quantum systems can become entangled through various types of interactions.
As an example of entanglement: a subatomic particle decays into an entangled pair of other particles. The decay events obey the various conservation laws, and as a result, the measurement outcomes of one daughter particle must be highly correlated with the measurement outcomes of the other daughter particle (so that the total momenta, angular momenta, energy, and so forth remains roughly the same before and after this process).
The special property of entanglement can be better observed if we separate the said two particles. Let's put one of them in the White House in Washington and the other in Buckingham Palace (think about this as a thought experiment, not an actual one). Now, if we measure a particular characteristic of one of these particles (say, for example, spin), get a result, and then measure the other particle using the same criterion (spin along the same axis), we find that the result of the measurement of the second particle will match (in a complementary sense) the result of the measurement of the first particle, in that they will be opposite in their values.
Explanation in human terms:
These entangled particles can arise or are born as a result of a collision of particles at ultra-high speeds and force like in an explosion or under set ups for experimental purposes. Let us equate it to identical twins who, after being born, experience throughout their lives, that whatever happens to one twin happens in exactly the same way, at exactly the same time to the other. Even if they are in different countries, on different continents or even on different planets:
Small wonder scientists are perplexed.
These discoveries begin to give an insight into how it is possible that an all-powerful being could influence all situations and yet allow free will to determine each single outcome. We create our own reality at each point of choice, nothing is pre-determined by cause and effect. How an omnipresent being, meaning a being capable of being everywhere all the time, throughout the universe, could exist.